Windows 10 System Commands

By André Faust

System commands are commands that can be run from the command prompt or in linux terminology Terminal. the Commands to be similar to DOS. DOS before the days of Windows was standalone operating which was initialized with command.com.

The early programs under DOS the visual interface was dependent on A.S.C.I.I. ( American Standard Code for Information Interchange) characters for the visual appearance. in figure 1 show is a screen shot of word Perfect 5.1. As can be seen the graphics are low quality compared to what we have today.

Wordperfect
Fig 1 WordPerect

In 1993 Microsoft deployed Windows 3.1 Fig 2. it was one of the GUI (Graphic User Interface),e however it was almost Identical to the Mac Classic. Apple launched a lawsuit against Microsoft which dragged on for years..

Windows3im
Fig 2. Microsoft Windows 3.1

DOS (Disk Operating System) was still then OS (Operating System) with Windows 3.1 running on top of it. 1995 was the release date for Windows 95, in 98 Windows 98 introduced into the market, in 99 Windows 98 SE deployed to the consumer market.

All three versions of Windows 9x sere still running on top of DOS the change came with windows millennium in 2000 where Microsoft change the architecture of the Operating system to incorporate DOS in the architecture. the result is that DOS and the windows operating system are the same.

While on the surface the commands may look like DOS, it isn’t. No longer the operating system separate form the windows kernel

Fig 3 is Windows 10 with the command prompt, will it may look like dos commands it isn’t

Windows-10-site
Fig 3. Windows 10 with the terminal window open

Below are all the command prompt commands, some of the commands will work with earlier Window versions, but not all.


System Commands Description
ASSOC
Displays or modifies file extension associations.
ATTRIB
Displays or changes file attributes.
BREAK
Sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking.
BCDEDIT Sets
properties in boot database to control boot loading.
CACLS
Displays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of
files.
CALL
Calls one batch program from another.
CD
Displays the name of or changes the current directory.
CHCP
Displays or sets the active code page number.
CHDIR
Displays the name of or changes the current directory.
CHKDSK
Checks a disk and displays a status report.
CHKNTFS Displays
or modifies the checking of disk at boot time.
CLS
Clears the screen.
CMD
Starts a new instance of the Windows command interpreter.
COLOR
Sets the default console foreground and background
colors.
COMP
Compares the contents of two files or sets of files.
COMPACT Displays
or alters the compression of files on NTFS partitions.
CONVERT Converts
FAT volumes to NTFS. You
cannot convert the current
drive.
COPY
Copies one or more files to another location.
DATE
Displays or sets the date.
DEL
Deletes one or more files.
DIR
Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a
directory.
DISKPART Displays or
configures Disk Partition properties.
DOSKEY
Edits command lines, recalls Windows commands, and
creates macros.
DRIVERQUERY Displays current
device driver status and properties.
ECHO
Displays messages, or turns command echoing on or off.
ENDLOCAL Ends localization of
environment changes in a batch file.
ERASE
Deletes one or more files.
EXIT
Quits the CMD.EXE program (command interpreter).
FC
Compares two files or sets of files, and displays the differences
between them.
FIND
Searches for a text string in a file or files.
FINDSTR Searches
for strings in files.
FOR
Runs a specified command for each file in a set of files.
FORMAT
Formats a disk for use with Windows.
FSUTIL
Displays or configures the file system properties.
FTYPE
Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.
GOTO
Directs the Windows command interpreter to a labeled line
in a batch program.
GPRESULT Displays Group Policy
information for machine or user.
GRAFTABL Enables Windows to
display an extended character set in graphics mode.
HELP
Provides Help information for Windows commands.
ICACLS
Display, modify, backup, or restore ACLs for files and
directories.
IF
Performs conditional processing in batch programs.
LABEL
Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.
MD
Creates a directory.
MKDIR
Creates a directory.
MKLINK
Creates Symbolic Links and Hard Links
MODE
Configures a system device.
MORE
Displays output one screen at a time.
MOVE
Moves one or more files from one directory to another directory.
OPENFILES Displays files opened
by remote users for a file share.
PATH
Displays or sets a search path for executable files.
PAUSE
Suspends processing of a batch file and displays a
message.
POPD
Restores the previous value of the current directory
saved by PUSHD.
PRINT
Prints a text file.
PROMPT
Changes the Windows command prompt.
PUSHD
Saves the current directory then changes it.
RD
Removes a directory.
RECOVER Recovers
readable information from a bad or defective disk.
REM
Records comments (remarks) in batch files or CONFIG.SYS.
REN
Renames a file or files.
RENAME
Renames a file or files.
REPLACE Replaces
files.
RMDIR
Removes a directory.
ROBOCOPY Advanced utility to
copy files and directory trees
SET
Displays, sets, or removes Windows environment variables.
SETLOCAL Begins localization
of environment changes in a batch file.
SC
Displays or configures services (background processes).
SCHTASKS Schedules commands
and programs to run on a computer.
SHIFT
Shifts the position of replaceable parameters in batch
files.
SHUTDOWN Allows proper local
or remote shutdown of machine.
SORT
Sorts input.
START
Starts a separate window to run a specified program or
command.
SUBST
Associates a path with a drive letter.
SYSTEMINFO Displays machine
specific properties and configuration.
TASKLIST Displays all
currently running tasks including services.
TASKKILL Kill or stop a
running process or application.
TIME
Displays or sets the system time.
TITLE
Sets the window title for a CMD.EXE session.
TREE
Graphically displays the directory structure of a drive
or path
TYPE
Displays the contents of a text file.
VER
Displays the Windows version.
VERIFY
Tells Windows whether to verify that your files are
written correctly to
a disk.
VOL
Displays a disk volume label and serial number.
XCOPY
Copies files and directory trees.
WMIC Schedules commands
and programs to run on a computer.

Windows Run Commands

Reference  Guide to Windows 7 & 10

By André Faust

These commands have not been tested on Windows 8 or 8.1. Some of the commands may not be supported by Windows 8.x.

If you want to impress, use these commands at the command prompt, the run or search. The list does not include all the possible commands that are available.

Normally all most every program/application that is loaded on a windows machine can be executed from the Command Prompt (Terminal), the run or the search).

Besides impressing anyone, these commands are a real time saver.

Another benefit to knowing these command is that you can create batch files to automate tasks.

A batch file is: A batch file is a kind of script file in DOS, OS/2 and Windows. It consists of a series of commands to be executed by the command line interpreter, stored in a plain text file. A batch file may contain any command the interpreter accepts interactively and use constructs that enable conditional branching and looping within the batch file, such as “if”, “for”, “goto” and labels. The term “batch” is from batch processing, meaning “non-interactive execution”, though a batch file may not process a batch of multiple data. — Wikipedia

In the  coming weeks I’ll be preparing a series of short tutorial on some of the common windows commands and how to use them in a batch file.


Works on Win7,
Win10, command prompt and run prompt

Runs only from the Command window (terminal) Win7, Win10

Runs from the run prompt Win7 and Win10

Only Win10 command and Run

Only Win7 command and Run

Win7 run only

Win10 command (terminal) only

Wind10 command(terminal) search


Run Command Task
appwiz.cpl Access the Programs and Features window
azman Authorization
Manager
calc Calculator
certmgr Certificates
charmap Character Map
cleanmgr Disk Cleanup
cliconfg SQL Server Client Network Utility
cmd Command Prompt
colorcpl Color Management
comexp Component Services
compmgmt Computer Management
compmgmtlauncher Computer Management
computerdefaults Set Program Access and Computer Defaults
control Control Panel
credwiz Credential Backup and Restore Wizard
rundll32.exe keymgr.dll,
KRShowKeyMgr
Stored User Names and
Passwords
cttune ClearType Tuner
dccw Display Color Calibration
dcomcnfg Component Services
desk.cpl Access Screen Resolution page
devicepairingwizard Add a Device
devmgmt Device Manager
dfrgui Disk Defragmenter
dialer Phone Dialer
diskmgmt Disk Management
displayswitch Display Switch
dpapimig DPAPI Key
Migration Wizard
dpiscaling Display
dvdmaker* Windows DVD Maker
dxdiag DirectX Diagnostic Tool
eudcedit Private Character Editor
eventvwr Event Viewer
explorer Windows Explorer
firewall.cpl Access the Windows firewall
fsmgmt Shared Folders
fsquirt Bluetooth File Transfer
fxscover Fax Cover Page Editor
gettingstarted Getting Started
gpedit Local Group Policy Editor
hdwwiz Add Hardware Wizard
iexpress IExpress
Wizard
iscsicpl iSCSI Initiator Configuration TooliSCSI
Initiator Properties
inetmgr Internet
Information Services
(feature
has to be installed)
isoburn Windows Disc Image Burning Tool
lpksetup Language Pack Installer
lusrmgr Local Users and Groups
magnify Magnifier
main.cpl Access Mouse properties
mblctr Windows Mobility Center
mdsched Windows Memory Diagnostic Scheduler
Migwiz* Windows Easy Transfer
mip* Math Input Panel
mmc Microsoft Management Console
mobsync Sync Center
mrt Malicious Software Removal Tool
msconfig System Configuration
msdt Diagnostics
Troubleshooting Wizard
Microsoft
Support Diagnostic Tool
msinfo32 System
Information
mspaint Paint
msra Windows
Remote
Assistance
mstsc Remote
Desktop
Connection
napclcfg NAP
Client Configuration
narrator Narrator
ncpa.cpl Access
Network
Adapters
netplwiz Advanced
User
Accounts
notepad Notepad
odbcad32 ODBC
Data Source Administrator
odbcconf ODBC
Driver Configuration
optionalfeatures Windows
Features
osk On-Screen
Keyboard
perfmon Performance
Monitor
powercfg.cpl Access
Power
Option
powershell Windows
PowerShell
powershell_ise Windows
PowerShell
ISE
presentationsettings Presentation
Settings
printbrmui Printer
Migration
printmanagement Print
Management
printui Change
Printer
Settings,
Printer User Interface
psr Problem
Steps
Recorder
rasphone Remote
Access
Phonebook
recdisc Create
a System Repair Disc,
Windows Repair Disc
regedit Registry
Editor
rekeywiz Encrypting
File
System Wizard,
Manage Your File Encryption Certificates
resmon Resource
Monitor
rsop Resultant
Set
of Policy
rstrui System
Restore
sdclt Backup
and Restore
secpol Local
Security
Policy
services Services
shrpubw Create
A Shared Folder Wizard,
Share
Creation Wizard
sigverif File
Signature
Verification
slui Windows
Activation
Client
sndvol Volume
Mixer
snippingtool Snipping
Tool
soundrecorder Sound
Recorder
stikynot Sticky
Notes
sysdm.cpl Access
the System Properties
sysedit (This command doesn’t work in the 64-bit
version of Windows.)
System
Configuration
Editor
syskey Securing
the
Windows Account Database
systempropertiesadvanced System
Properties
(Advanced Tab)
systempropertiescomputername System
Properties
(Computer Name Tab)
systempropertiesdataexecutionprevention Change
Data Execution Prevention Settings,
Data
Execution Prevention
systempropertieshardware System
Properties
(Hardware Tab)
systempropertiesperformance Change
Computer
Performance Settings,
Performance Options
systempropertiesprotection System
Properties
(System Protection Tab)
systempropertiesremote System
Properties
(Remote Tab)
tabcal Digitizer
Calibration
Tool
tabtip* Tablet
PC Input Panel
taskmgr Task
Manager
taskschd Task
Scheduler
tpm Trusted
Platform
Module (TPM) Management
useraccountcontrolsettings User
Account
Control Settings
utilman Ease
of Access Center,
Utility Manager
verifier Driver
Verifier
Manager
wab* Windows
Contacts
wabmig* Import
to Windows Contacts
wbemtest WMI
Tester
wf Windows
Firewall
with Advanced Security
wfs Windows
Fax and Scan
wiaacmgr New
Scan Wizard,
Windows
Picture Acquisition Wizard
windowsanytimeupgraderesults Windows
Anytime
Upgrade Results
winhlp32 Windows
Help
and Support
winver About
Windows,
Version Reporter
Applet
wmimgmt WMI
Management
wmplayer Windows
Media
Player
write WordPad
wscript Windows
Script
Host
wscui.cpl Access
Windows
Action Center
wuapp Windows
Update
wusa Windows
Update
Standalone Installer
xpsrchvw XPS
Viewer
*these command are executed via run

Migrating from Windows to Ubuntu 14.04

By André Faust

The advantage of using an opens source operating like Ubuntu, Fedora and any other distributions is that it is free, unlike Windows which is costly depending on the version that you want. The other downside of Windows or Mac OS is and you haven’t created a recovery disk you may have to re-purchase your Windows or Mac.

At one time Computer vendors use to supply installation disks with the computer, so that in the event of a reinstallation you had all the necessary disk to get your computer up and running again, but that practice is now, for the most part, a thing of the past. Unfortunately, what some computer repair shops will do is install a pirated version to keep the cost of servicing the computer down.

If you don’t need to use some very specialised software and most of your computer activity is browsing the web, sending and receiving emails, using social media, or uploading pictures of your favourite cat, then a Linux distro such as Ubuntu or Fedora may be the way to go.

This tutorial migrating from Windows to Ubuntu is intended to those who wishes to make the switch to Ubuntu. The tutorial is divided into 10 sessions, each session talks about on aspect of the operating system.


 

Gopher Predates the Internet as We Know it But still useful.

By André Faust

Gopher
For those who have been around since the beginning of the internet Early 90’s will remember “Veronica, Archie.  Veronica was the search engine for the Gopher Protocol, and Archie was the search engine for FTP (File Transfer Protocol).  In its early days Archie, Veronica and gopher were available on university campus to allow access to research.

Most of the information that you would retrieve would text based documents using a modem anywhere between 300 baud to 2400 baud.

While gophers has taken a back seat to the modern day internet it still can have its place, for activists, or groups who only wish to disseminate in formation with in the group.  The only catch here is that you have to set you computer as a gopher server as well a gopher client.

The advantage of using gopher is that it is very light weight and because most of the information is text based it does not consume as much band width as the HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) protocol which great if you using a mobile where the providers nickel and dime you once you go over the allocated bandwidth.

Cameron Kaiser from the Overbite project explains why Gopher is relevant even in today’s world.


Why is Gopher Still Relevant?

Cameron Kaiser, from the Overbite Project

Most people who “get” Gopher are already using it and instinctively understand why Gopher is still useful and handy. On the other hand, people who inhabit the Web generation after Gopher’s decline only see Gopherspace as a prototype Web or a historical curiosity, not a world in its own right — and more to the point, being only such a “prototype,” there is the wide belief that Gopher plays no relevant role in today’s Internet and is therefore unnecessary. This has led to many regrettable consequences, such as the neglect of servers and clients, or even active removal of support.

However, there is much to be gained from a heterogeneous network environment where there are multiple methods of information access, and while the Web will confidently remain the primary means of Internet information dissemination, there continues to be a role for Gopher-based resources even in this modern age. Gopher and the Web can, and should, continue to coexist.

The misconception that the modern renaissance of Gopherspace is simply a reaction to “Web overload” is unfortunately often repeated and, while superficially true, demonstrates a distinct lack of insight. From a purely interface perspective, there is no question that Gopher could be entirely “subsumed” under the Web (technical differences to be discussed presently). Very simple HTML menus and careful attention to hierarchy would yield an experience very much like a Gopher menu, and some have done exactly that as a deliberate protest against the sensory overload of modern Web 2.0.

Gopher, however, is more than a confederated affiliation of networks with goals of minimalism; rather, Gopher is a mind-set on making structure out of chaos. On the Web, even if such a group of confederated webmasters existed, it requires their active and willful participation to maintain such a hierarchical style and the seamlessness of that joint interface breaks down abruptly as soon as one leaves for another page. Within Gopherspace, all Gophers work the same way and all Gophers organize themselves around similar menus and interface conceits. It is not only easy and fast to create gopher content in this structured and organized way, it is mandatory by its nature. Resulting from this mandate is the ability for users to navigate every Gopher installation in the same way they navigated the one they came from, and the next one they will go to. Just like it had been envisioned by its creators, Gopher takes the strict hierarchical nature of a file tree or FTP and turns it into a friendlier format that still gives the fast and predictable responses that they would get by simply browsing their hard drive. As an important consequence, by divorcing interface from information, Gopher sites stand and shine on the strength of their content and not the glitz of their bling.

Furthermore, Gopher represents the ability to bring an interconnected browsing experience to low-computing-power environments. Rather than the expense of large hosting power and bandwidth, Gopher uses an inexpensive protocol to serve and a trivial menuing format to parse, making it cost-effective for both client and server. Gopher sites can be hosted and downloaded effectively on bandwidth-constrained networks such as dialup and even low-speed wireless, and clients require little more than a TCP stack and minimal client software to navigate them. In an environment where there are cries for “green computing” and “green data centres,” along with large-scale media attention on emerging technology markets in developing nations and the proliferation of wireless technology with limited CPU and memory, it is hypocritical to this author why an established protocol such as Gopher would be bypassed for continued reliance on inefficient programming paradigms and expensive protocols. Indeed, this sort of network doublethink has wrought large, unwieldy solutions such as WAP, a dramatic irony, since in the case of many low-power devices such as consumer mobile phones, the menu format used on them is nearly completely analogous to what Gopher already offered over a decade earlier. More to the point, few in that market segment support the breadth of WAP, and those that can simply use a regular Web browser instead.

Finally, if Web and gopher can coexist in the client’s purview, they can also exist in the server’s. HTML can be served by both gopher servers and web servers, or a Gopher menu can be clothed in CSS, translated to HTML, and given to a web browser (and in its native form to a Gopher client). This approach yields a natural and highly elegant consequence: if you don’t want to choose strictly one way or the other to communicate to your users, choose neither and offer them both a structured low-bandwidth approach or a higher-bandwidth Web view, built from the same content. The precedent of a single serving solution offering both to both clients has been in existence since the early days of the Web with tools such as GN, and today with more modern implementations such as pygopherd. Gopher menus are so trivial to parse that they can easily be HTML-ified with simple scripts and act as the basis for both morphs; what’s more, their data-oriented approach means they require little work to construct and maintain, and content creation in general becomes simple and quick with the interface step already taken care of. Plus, many servers easily generate dynamic gopher menus with built-in executable support, providing the interactive nature demanded by many modern applications while still fitting into Gopher’s hierarchical format, and virtually all modern Gopher servers can aggregate links to Web content to forge bidirectional connections.

Modern Gopherspace represents the next and greatest way for alternative information access, and the new generation of Gopher maintainers demonstrate a marked grassroots desire for a purer way to get to high-quality resources. Not simply nostalgia for the “way it used to be,” modern Gopherspace is a distinctly different population than in the mid 1990s when it flourished, yet one on which modern services can still be found, from news and weather to search engines, personal pages, “phlogs” and file archives. It would be remiss to dismissively say Gopher was killed by the Web, when in fact the Web and Gopher can live in their distinct spheres and each contribute to the other. With the modern computing emphasis on interoperability, heterogeneity and economy, Gopher continues to offer much to the modern user, as well as in terms of content, accessibility and inexpensiveness. Even now clearly as second fiddle to the World Wide Web, Gopher still remains relevant. — Cameron Kaiser


 

Running OS X El Capitan on Windows

OS X El Capitan

by André Faust

Over the last several weeks I have been asked to resolve some Mac OX issues, fortunately they weren’t serious issues, mostly installation issues. Since the Mac OS kernel is a variant of BSD and Linux I was able to resolve their issues at the terminal.

I realized in order for me to make proper diagnosis on more complex problems I would need to know the OS as well as I do with Windows and Linux.

I first tried to install El Capitan using Oracles virtual box, I found that I couldn’t install it directly, so I attempted to install Yosemite, only to realize that with Virtualbox it was going to be very time consuming because virtual box doesn’t really support Mac OS. The problem has to do with the Intel chipset and how the Mac OS interacts with the chipset.

I did a little additional research and found that VMWare could be easily set up to run Mac OS, but you had to find, not an iso, or dmz of the OS but a VMWare version. I found another copy of Yosemite which was pre setup for VMWare, the other thing an unblocker was required to unblock the Mac OS features of VMWare.

I lucked out on my first search I found both the VMWare version of Yosemite and the unblocker. I was able to install Yosemite without any problems. After I installed it a powered on Yosemite, a notification came up the El Capitan was available for free to upgrade Yosemite. Before proceeding I made sure that I had the system requirements that El Capitan needs in order to function.

Have the all of the system requirements that El Capitan needed I proceed with the update, the upgrade went through without a hitch. A Eureka moment, El Capitan running on a Windows 7 Machine courtesy of VMWare.

If there are any request for a tutorial on installing El Capitan on a windows machine I will gladly produce a tutorial showing you how to do it and what caveats to look for.